Download PDF by Teresa J. Bandosz: Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation

By Teresa J. Bandosz

ISBN-10: 0123705363

ISBN-13: 9780123705365

Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation presents a entire precis of the environmental functions of activated carbons. in an effort to comprehend the removing of contaminants and toxins on activated carbons, the theoretical bases of adsorption phenomena are mentioned. the results of pore constitution and floor chemistry also are addressed from either technological know-how and engineering views. each one bankruptcy offers examples of genuine purposes with an emphasis at the position of the carbon floor in adsorption or reactive adsorption. the sensible elements addressed during this e-book disguise the vast spectrum of purposes from air and water cleansing and effort garage to war gasoline removing and biomedical applications.

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These differ depending on the activation production method employed. Thus, in the case of the thermal activation (mainly steam activation), one of the reasons is to ensure that the particle has a relatively high internal porosity. This facilitates the diffusion of the activating gas and ensures a homogeneous activation throughout the whole particle. Another important point is that shaped carbons have a higher density and hardness and a lower abrasion index than broken GAC. Most cylindrical shaped GAC produced by steam activation are based on extrusion, and are frequently called activated carbon extrudates.

In terms of adsorption capacity, it easily reaches specific surface areas of 1000 m2 g"1 at 50% of activation conversion degree (regardless of carbonization yield), when an acceptable raw material with an initial ash content below 10% is used. Basically, steam activated carbons are microporous materials, with a micropore size that increases with the activation degree, but with no mesopore development. As an example, Fig. 11 shows the nitrogen adsorption isotherms of activated carbon produced by the steam activation of an anthracite [33].

The reason for this behaviour is that the mineral matter of coconut shells contains appreciable amounts of potassium. With regards to the apparent kinetic constant, there is experimental evidence that hydrogen inhibits the reaction kinetics significantly, whereas carbon monoxide does not. From this evidence, the apparent kinetic constant is an expression of the LangmuirHinshelwood type [32]: »l + k2 ±l \RT where h are Arrhenius type preexponential factors, Ea the activation energy, Ez and E3 adsorption enthalpies and P,- the partial pressures.

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Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation by Teresa J. Bandosz

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