By Michael A. Arbib
Replicate neurons could carry the brain's key to social interplay - every one coding not just a selected motion or emotion but in addition the popularity of that motion or emotion in others. The reflect method speculation provides an evolutionary arrow to the tale - from the replicate method for hand activities, shared with monkeys and chimpanzees, to the uniquely human reflect method for language. during this obtainable 2006 quantity, specialists from baby improvement, desktop technology, linguistics, neuroscience, primatology and robotics current and examine the reflect process and express how experiences of motion and language can remove darkness from one another. issues mentioned within the fifteen chapters comprise: what do chimpanzees and people have in universal? Does the human strength for language relaxation on mind mechanisms shared with different animals? How do human babies gather language? What may be realized from imaging the human mind? How are signal- and spoken-language similar? Will robots learn how to act and communicate like people?
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Additional resources for Action to Language via the Mirror Neuron System
2003). They trained two Japanese monkeys to use a rakeshaped tool to retrieve distant food. After training, the monkeys spontaneously began vocalizing coo-calls in the tool-using context. Hihara et al. then trained one of the monkeys to vocalize to request food or the tool: Condition 1 When the monkey produced a coo-call (call A), the experimenter put a food reward on the table, but out of his reach. When the monkey again vocalized a coo-call (call B), the experimenter presented the tool within his reach.
To develop the doctrine, we must distinguish two roles for imitation in the transition from stage S4 to stage S5: 1. The transition from praxic action directed towards a goal object to pantomime in which similar actions are produced away from the goal object. 2. The emergence of conventionalized gestures to ritualize or disambiguate pantomimes. As Stokoe (2001) and others emphasize, the power of pantomime is that it provides open-ended communication that works without prior instruction or convention.
Arbib essential point here, though, is that they lack the ability of pantomime to convey a rich, varied, and open repertoire of meanings without prior conventionalization. It is not claimed that stage S5 (protosign) was “completed” before stage S6 (protospeech) was initiated or that protosign attained the status of a full language prior to the emergence of early forms of protospeech. Rather, once hominids had come to employ pantomime and discovered how to use conventional gestures to increasingly augment, ritualize and in some part replace the use of pantomime, then stage S6 followed naturally as vocal gestures entered the mix.
Action to Language via the Mirror Neuron System by Michael A. Arbib