By Frederick Charles Copleston
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A HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY -IV DESCARTES (I) Secondly, he was resolved to avoid that confusion of the clear and evident with what is conjectural or at best only probable of which he accused the Scholastics. For him there was only one kind of knowledge worthy of the name, certain knowledge. Thirdly, Descartes was determined to attain and work with clear and distinct ideas and not, as he accused the Scholastics of sometimes doing, to use terms without any clear meaning or possibly without any meaning at all.
And though British empiricism in the nineteenth century was more or less unaffected by Kant, the neo-empiricism of the twentieth century has consciously tried to deal metaphysics a far more decisive blow than was delivered by Kant who, when all is said and done, was himself something of a metaphysician. CHAPTER II DESCARTES (I) Life and UJorksl-Descartes' ai~His idea of method-The theory of innate ideas-Methodic doubt. I. RENE DESCARTES was born on March 31st, 1596, in Touraine, being the third child of a councillor of the parliament of Brittany.
And if our interpretation of the world as a mechanical system depends on the operation of I The moral law, for Kant, is promulgated by the practical reason. In 'l: sense which will be explained in the appropriate place man gives the law to. himself. But obligation is without meaning except in relation to a bemg which IS free to obey or disobey the law. INTRODUCTION 61 subjective conditions of experience, of sense-experience, that is to say, we have even less reason for making this assertion than we should have in any case.
A History of Philosophy [Vol IV] by Frederick Charles Copleston