By Stephen Hawking, Leonard Mlodinow
#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLING AUTHORS
The technological know-how vintage made extra accessible
• extra concise • Illustrated
FROM probably the most incredible MINDS OF OUR TIME COMES A ebook THAT CLARIFIES HIS most crucial IDEAS
Stephen Hawking’s around the world bestseller A short historical past of Time continues to be a landmark quantity in medical writing. yet for years readers have requested for a extra available formula of its key concepts—the nature of house and time, the function of God in construction, and the heritage and way forward for the universe. A Briefer historical past of Time is Professor Hawking’s response.
Although “briefer,” this ebook is far greater than a trifling rationalization of Hawking’s prior paintings. A Briefer background of Time either clarifies and expands at the nice topics of the unique, and files the newest advancements within the field—from string concept to the quest for a unified thought of all of the forces of physics. Thirty-seven full-color illustrations improve the textual content and make A Briefer heritage of Time a thrilling and must-have addition in its personal correct to the nice literature of technological know-how and ideas.
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Extra info for A Briefer History of Time
For this purpose VAC is measured in every point during scanning simultaneously with the surface topography. The value of ∆ parameter, which is recorded in a separate file, is calculated using local VAC. ∆ = f (x,y) distribution is built henceforth, characterizing the structure of the superconducting state of the sample. 2. Atomic force microscopy Atomic force microscope (AFM) was invented in 1986 by Gerd Binnig, Calvin F. Quate and Christopher Herber . The AFM working principle is the measurement of the interactive force between a tip and the sample surface using special probes made by an elastic cantilever with a sharp tip on the end (Fig.
A) (c) (b) (d) Fig. 33. Example of application of Fourier-filtration to one AFM image: (a) – initial AFM image; (b) – spectrum of the initial image (c) – filtered image; (d) – processing of spectrum by square low frequency filter Filters with more complex spectral function are applied for elimination of undesirable effects due to the abrupt change of spectral function at the filter edge and on the frame borders. It is possible to calculate on the Fourier-image several useful characteristics of the surface.
Fourier filtration of the SPM images The spectral filtration based on the Fourier transform is a powerful method for SPM images correction. Any function can be presented as a Fourier integral. In case of the SPM topographic function Z=f(x,y) the Fourier transform is made by discrete values. Fourier image of the surface can be found using the following formulae (the imaginary unit Fαβ = − 1 is designated by ν ): 1 α ⋅i β ⋅ j ⎤ ⎡ + ) . Z ij exp ⎢2πν ( 2 ∑ N N ⎥⎦ N ij ⎣ Accordingly, the inverse Fourier transform: α ⋅i β ⋅ j ⎤ ⎡ + ) .
A Briefer History of Time by Stephen Hawking, Leonard Mlodinow